Dry Eye: A Comprehensive Guide to Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, and Treatment


Dry eyes, a common and often frustrating condition that can make everyday activities like reading, working at a computer, or simply enjoying the outdoors, a painful and irritating experience. It’s estimated to affect over 30 million Americans, and the number is increasing with our growing dependence on digital screens and exposure to dry environments.

Dry eyes can occur when the eyes are unable to produce an adequate quantity of tears or when the tears evaporate too quickly.

Understanding the Basics of Your Tears:

Your eyes’ tear production and drainage system have to work together for optimal eye health. Sometimes however, tear production or tear quality decreases or drainage is disrupted, leading to dry eyes. Aging, hormonal changes, medications, and conditions like Sjögren’s syndrome can interfere with this delicate balance.

To understand dry eyes, we first need to understand the function of tears. Our tears are not made up of just water; they are a complex mix of water, oils, and mucus that lubricates, protects, and nourishes our eyes. There are three main layers to tears:

  • The oil layer: This outer layer prevents your tears from evaporating too quickly and keeps the eye moist.
  • The aqueous layer: This middle layer makes up the bulk of tears and contains important proteins and electrolytes that nourish the cornea and fight off infection.
  • The mucin layer: This inner layer helps tears spread evenly over the eye’s surface and keeps them from blurring your vision.

Symptoms of Dry Eye:

If any of the three tear layers are impacted, it can lead to dry eyes. Some common symptoms include:

  • Stinging or burning sensation in the eyes
  • Scratchy, gritty feeling, or sensation of something in your eye
  • Blurred vision
  • Excessive tearing (paradoxical tearing)
  • Redness and irritation of the eyes
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Difficulty wearing contact lenses.

Recognizing the Difference: Dry Eyes vs. Allergies

Mistaking dry eyes for allergies is quite common, as the symptoms can overlap. However, there are a few key differences to look out for. Unlike allergies, dry eyes often don’t cause itching or a runny nose. Instead, they focus on making your eyes feel as parched as a desert.

Causes of Dry Eyes:

Dry eyes can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

  • Medical conditions: diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune conditions, and thyroid disorders, are some medical conditions that can affect the quality or quantity of tears produced.
  • Medications: Certain medications, such as antihistamines, decongestants, and antidepressants, often have side effects that dry out the eyes.
  • Hygiene: Good eye hygiene can go a long way in preventing dry eyes. Avoid rubbing your eyes excessively and make sure to remove eye makeup before bed.
  • Diet: The things we put in our body can greatly impact the quantity and quality of tears produced.
  • Environmental factors: Dry air, wind, smoke, and air conditioning can all contribute to dry eyes.
  • Age: As we age, our tear production naturally decreases, making us more susceptible to dry eyes.
  • Contact lens use: Wearing contact lenses can irritate the eyes and disrupt the tear film.
  • Digital eye strain: Staring at digital screens for extended periods reduces blinking, leading to drier eyes.

How to cure Dry Eyes

Paying attention to the triggering symptoms of dry eyes can help you cure this eye condition accordingly. Also, some lifestyle adjustments, home remedies and medical interventions can help you prevent and treat dry eyes.

Prevention Strategies:

The good news is that there are several things you can do to prevent dry eyes:

  • Increase your blinking: When working at a computer or focused on close-up tasks, make a conscious effort to blink more frequently to keep your eyes lubricated.
  • Use a humidifier: Adding moisture to the air, especially in dry climates or during winter months, can help prevent eye dryness.
  • If you smoke, Quit: Smoking worsens the symptoms of dry eyes, so consider making a quit-smoking strategy with your healthcare provider. If you don’t smoke, avoid those that do. Smoking not only causes dry eyes but also leads to macular degeneration and optic nerve damage, among other things.
  • Avoid irritants: dry winds, air conditioning and smoky environments can all dry out your eyes. Try to avoid these triggers whenever possible.
  • Take breaks from digital screens: Give your eyes a break from screens. Follow the 20/20/20 rule; every 20-minutes, look at something 20-feet away for 20-seconds.
  • Adjust your screen settings: Decrease the relative brightness and adjust the contrast on your computer screen to reduce eye strain.
  • Wear sunglasses: Sunglasses can help protect your eyes from wind, dust, and UV rays, all of which can contribute to dry eyes.
  • Drink plenty of water: Staying hydrated is important for overall health, as well as keeping your eyes moist.
  • Eat a healthy diet: Eating a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids, found in oily fish, flaxseeds, and walnuts, can help improve tear quality.

Treatment Options:

If you are experiencing dry eyes, there are a number of treatment options available, depending on the severity of your symptoms and the underlying cause.

  • Artificial tears: Over-the-counter eye drops can help lubricate the eyes and relieve symptoms. There are many types of artificial tears available. It may take some trial and error to find one that works well for you. Avoid any drops that “remove redness”. They contain chemical additives that constrict the blood vessels in the eye (vasoconstrictor) and can actually make your symptoms worse.
  • Prescription eye drops: In some cases, your doctor may prescribe stronger eye drops that contain medication to help stimulate tear production or reduce inflammation.
  • Punctal plugs: These tiny plugs are inserted into the tear ducts to prevent tears from draining away too quickly.
  • LipiFlow Thermal Pulsation: This in-office procedure uses heat to unblock the meibomian glands, which produce the oily layer of tears.
  • Blepharoplasty: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct eyelid problems that are contributing to dry eyes.

Consultation with an Eye Care Specialist

If your dry eye persists, despite your best efforts, it’s time to seek professional help. An eye care specialist, like Goodrich Optical, can assess the severity of your condition and recommend appropriate treatment options. Don’t be afraid to reach out and let us work our magic on your eyes.

Living with Dry Eyes:

Dry eyes can be a frustrating and uncomfortable condition, but there are many things you can do to manage your symptoms and improve your quality of life. By following these prevention tips and discussing treatment options with us at Goodrich Optical, you can find relief.

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